1914-1918 Globalization: the US Film Industry emerges in part because Europeans needed Celluloid to Make Weapons

Social scientists usually use the term “globalization” to refer to the period initiated by the July 1944 United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire which helped plan financing for the post-World War II rebuilding of Europe. From the meeting came the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) which was charged with the task of “preventing another global depression” by pressuring countries to apply fiscal policies that would stimulate economies (Stiglitz 2002). While the globalization literature makes a significant contribution to our understanding of postwar global forces, especially economic factors effecting third-world workers, for the purposes of an analysis involving Hollywood production, globalization begins earlier.  For example, American motion picture involvement in the globalizing world had included the shift of motion picture productive power during World War I when the celluloid needed for European film production was used for the war effort, and so American film production could grow unimpeded by European competition (Cook 1996).    

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